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Clinical Research

Ashwagandha

Naturopathic care for anxiety: a randomized controlled trial
Cooley K, Szczurko O, Perri D, Mills EJ, Bernhardt B, Zhou Q, Seely D.
Department of Research and Clinical Epidemiology, The Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine, Toronto, Canada.
PLoS One. 2009 Aug 31;4(8):e6628. PMID: 19718255 [Read the Abstract]

Studies on the immunomodulatory effects of Ashwagandha.
Ziauddin M, Phansalkar N, Patki P, Diwanay S, Patwardhan B.
Medinova Diagnostics Center, Indian Drugs Research Association, Pune, India.
AJ Ethnopharmacol. 1996 Feb;50(2):69-76. PMID: 8866726 [Read the Abstract]

Anxiolytic-antidepressant activity of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides: an experimental study.
Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, Sairam K, Ghosal S.
Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University
Phytomedicine. 2000 Dec;7(6):463-9. PMID: 11194174 [Read the Abstract]

Search for natural products related to regeneration of the neuronal network.
Tohda C, Kuboyama T, Komatsu K.
Research Center for Ethnomedicines, Institute of Natural Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Japan.
Neurosignals. 2005;14(1-2):34-45 PMID: 15956813 [Read the Abstract]

Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) - monograph.
Altern Med Rev. 2004 Jun;9(2):211-214.
Withania somnifera, also known as ashwagandha, Indian ginseng, or winter cherry, has been an important herb in the Ayurvedic and indigenous medical systems for over 3000 years. Historically, the plant has been used as an aphrodisiac, liver tonic, anti-inflammatory agent, and more recently to treat asthma, ulcers, insomnia, and senile dementia. Clinical trials and animal research support the use of ashwagandha for anxiety, cognitive and neurological disorders, inflammation, and Parkinson's disease. Ashwagandha's chemopreventive properties make it a potentially useful adjunct for patients undergoing radiation and chemotherapy. Ashwaganda is also used therapeutically as an adaptogen for patients with nervous exhaustion, and debility due to stress, and as an immune stimulant in patients with low white blood cell counts.

Passion Flower

Behavioural effects of Passiflora incarnata L. and its indole alkaloid and flavonoid derivatives.
Soulimani R, Younos C, Jarmouni S, Bousta D, Misslin R, Mortier F.
Laboratoire d'Ethnobotanique et de Pharmacologie, Universite de Metz, France.
J Ethnopharmacol. 1997 Jun;57(1):11-20. PMID: 9234160 [Read the Abstract]

TLC determination of flavonoid accumulation in clonal populations of Passiflora incarnata
Menghini A, Mancini LA.
Department of Plant Biology, University of Perugia, Italy.
macol Res Commun. 1988 Dec;20 Suppl 5:113-6. PMID: 3247338 [Read the Abstract]

A HPTLC densitometric determination of flavonoids from Passiflora alata, P. edulis, P. incarnata and P. caerulea and comparison with HPLC method.
Pereira CA, Yariwake JH, Lancas FM, Wauters JN, Tits M, Angenot L.
Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Ouimica de Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil.
Phytochem Anal. 2004 Jul-Aug;15(4):241-8. PMID: 15311844 [Read the Abstract]

Possible anxiolytic effects of chrysin, a central benzodiazepine receptor ligand isolated from Passiflora coerulea.
Wolfman C, Viola H, Paladini A, Dajas F, Medina JH.
Instituto de Biologia Celular, Facultad de Medicina, UBA, Argentina.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1994 Jan;47(1):1-4. PMID: 7906886 [Read the Abstract]

Passion Flower -- a reliable herbal sedative
Krenn L.
Institut fur Pharmakognosie, Universitat Wien, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Wien. Liselotte.Kren@univie.ac.at
Wien Med Wochenschr. 2002;152(15-16):404-6. PMID: 12244887 [Read the Abstract]

A combination of plant extracts in the treatment of outpatients with adjustment disorder with anxious mood: controlled study versus placebo.
Bourin M, Bougerol T, Guitton B, Broutin E.
GIS Medicament, Faculte de Medecine, Unite de Psychopharmacologie, Nantes, France.
Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 1997;11(2):127-32. PMID: 9107558 [Read the Abstract]

Passionflower in the treatment of generalized anxiety: a pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial with oxazepam.
Akhondzadeh S, Naghavi HR, Vazirian M, Shayeganpour A, Rashidi H, Khani M.
Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, South Kargar Avenue, Tehran, Iran.
J Clin Pharm Ther. 2001 Oct;26(5):363-7.PMID: 11679026 [Read the Abstract]

Brahmi (Bacopa Monnieri)

Antistress effects of bacosides of Bacopa monnieri: modulation of Hsp70 expression, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome P450 activity in rat brain.
Chowdhuri DK, Parmar D, Kakkar P, Shukla R, Seth PK, Srimal RC.
Industrial Toxicology Research Center, Lucknow - 226001, UP, India.
Phytother Res. 2002 Nov;16(7):639-45. PMID: 12410544 [Read the Abstract]

Adaptogenic effect of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi)
Rai D, Bhatia G, Palit G, Pal R, Singh S, Singh HK.
Division of Pharmacology, Central Drug Research Institute, Chattar Manzil Palace, Lucknow, India.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003 Jul;75(4):823-30.PMID: 12957224 [Read the Abstract]

A Review of Nutrients and Botanicals in the Integrative Management of Cognitive Dysfunction
Parris M. Kidd, PhD , Biomedical consultant
1999 Thorne Research, Inc.
Volume 4, Number 3,p144-161, 1999 Alternative Review  [Read the Full Text]

Clinical evaluation of memory enhancing properties of Memory Plus in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
Negi KS, Singh YD, Kushwaha KP, Rastogi CK, Rathi AK, Srivastava JS, Asthana OP, Gupta RC, Lucknow G.
Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 2000 Apr; 42(2) Supplement [Read the Abstract]

The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human subjects
C. Stough · J. Lloyd · J. Clarke · L. Downey · C. W. Hutchison · T. Rodgers · P. J. Nathan
Neuropharmacology Lab., Brain Sciences Institute, Swinburne U of Technology Australia
Psychopharmacology : 17 April 2001 PMID: 11498727 [Read the Abstract]

Chronic effects of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) on human memory.
Roodenrys S, Booth D, Bulzomi S, Phipps A, Micallef C, Smoker J.
Department of Psychology, University of Wollongong, Australia.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002 Aug;27(2):279-81. PMID: 12093601 [Read the Abstract]

Evaluation of sedative and anticonvulsant activities of Unmadnashak Ghrita (Combination Therapy).
Achliya GS, Wadodkar SG, Dorle AK.
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagpur University Campus, India.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Sep;94(1):77-83. PMID: 15261966 [Read the Abstract]

Studies on the anti-anxiety effect of the medyha rasayana drug, Brahmi
Singh RH, Singh L.
J Res Ayur Siddha 1990;1:133-148.

Antidepressant activity of standardized extract of Bacopa monniera in experimental models of depression in rats.
Sairam K, Dorababu M, Goel RK, Bhattacharya SK.
Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, India.
Phytomedicine. 2002 Apr;9(3):207-11. PMID: 12046860 [Read the Abstract]

Magnesium

Latent tetany and anxiety, marginal magnesium deficit, and normocalcemia.
Seelig MS, Berger AR, Spielholz N.
Dis Nerv Syst. 1975 Aug;36(8):461-5. PMID: 1164868 [Read the Abstract]

Magnesium, schizophrenia and manic-depressive disease.
Kirov GK, Tsachev KN.
Psychiatric Ward, District General Hospital, Bulgaria.
Neuropsychobiology. 1990;23(2):79-81. PMID: 2077436 [Read the Abstract]

Depression and magnesium deficiency.
Rasmussen HH, Mortensen PB, Jensen IW.
Department of Geriatric Medicine, Denmark.
Int J Psychiatry Med. 1989;19(1):57-63. PMID: 2722406 [Read the Abstract]

L–Theanine

How a Unique Anxiety Reducer and Mood Enhancer Increases Alpha Waves and Alertness.
Carolyn Perrini, CLS, CNC.
web-us.com, 2005. [Read the Study]

L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses.
Kimura K, Ozeki M, Juneja LR, Ohira H.
Biol Psychol. 2007 Jan;74(1):39-45. Epub 2006 Aug 22. PMID: 16930802 [Read the Abstract]

Efficacy (against premenstrual syndrome) and short term safety of L-theanine in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study in humans.
Research, Taiyo Kagaku Co., Ltd., Yokkaichi, Mie, Japan , Research, Q-Tech Services, Inc., Crossville, TN
The Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. [Read the Study]

L-theanine, a natural constituent in tea, and its effect on mental state
Nobre AC, Rao A, Owen GN.
Unilever Food and Health Research Institute, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, Postbus 114, 3130 AC Vlaardingen, The Netherlands.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:167-8. PMID: 18296328 [Read the Abstract]

GABA

Relaxation and immunity enhancement effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid ( GABA ) administration in humans.
Biofactors. 2006;26(3):201-8. Department of Research and Development, Pharma Foods International Co. Ltd., Kyoto, Japan.
The effect of orally administrated gamma-aminobutyric acid ( GABA ) on relaxation and immunity during stress has been investigated in humans. Two studies were conducted. The first evaluated the effect of GABA intake by 13 subjects on their brain waves. Electroencephalograms (EEG) were obtained after 3 tests on each volunteer as follows: intake only water, GABA, or L-theanine. After 60 minutes of administration, GABA significantly increases alpha waves and decreases beta waves compared to water or L-theanine. These findings denote that GABA not only induces relaxation but also reduces anxiety. The second study was conducted to see the role of relaxant and anxiolytic effects of GABA intake on immunity in stressed volunteers. Eight acrophobic subjects were divided into 2 groups (placebo and GABA). All subjects were crossing a suspended bridge as a stressful stimulus. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels in their saliva were monitored during bridge crossing. Placebo group showed marked decrease of their IgA levels, while GABA group showed significantly higher levels. In conclusion, GABA could work effectively as a natural relaxant and its effects could be seen within 1 hour of its administration to induce relaxation and diminish anxiety. Moreover, GABA administration could enhance immunity under stress conditions.


Genetic and pharmacological evidence of a role for GABA(B) receptors in the modulation of anxiety- and antidepressant-like behavior.
Mombereau C, Kaupmann K, Froestl W, Sansig G, van der Putten H, Cryan JF.
Neuroscience Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004 Jun;29(6):1050-62. PMID: 15039762 [Read the Abstract]

Brain neurotransmission in panic disorder.
Eriksson E.
Department of Pharmacology, University of Goteborg, Sweden.
Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1987;335:31-7. PMID: 2890266 [Read the Abstract]

High-dose pyridoxine as an 'anti-stress' strategy.
McCarty MF.
Pantox Laboratories, San Diego, California, USA.
Med Hypotheses. 2000 May;54(5):803-7. PMID: 10859691 [Read the Abstract]

The GABA paradox: multiple roles as metabolite, neurotransmitter, and neurodifferentiative agent.
Waagepetersen HS, Sonnewald U, Schousboe A.
PharmaBiotec Research Center, Department of Pharmacology, Royal Danish School of Pharmacy, Copenhagen.
J Neurochem. 1999 Oct;73(4):1335-42. PMID: 10501176 [Read the Abstract]

Tryptophan

Tryptophan kynurenine metabolism as a common mediator of genetic and environmental impacts in major depressive disorder: the serotonin hypothesis revisited 40 years later.
Oxenkrug GF.
Department of Psychiatry, Tufts University School of Medicine and Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA.
Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 2010;47(1):56-63. PMID: 20686200 [Read the Abstract]

Tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) in disorders of cognitive control and emotion regulation: a perspective.
Waider J, Araragi N, Gutknecht L, Lesch KP.
University of Wuerzburg, Fuechsleinstrasse 15, 97080 Wuerzburg, Germany.
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2011 Apr;36(3):393-405. Epub 2011 Jan 22. PMID: 21257271 [Read the Abstract]

Overexpression or knockdown of rat tryptophan hyroxylase-2 has opposing effects on anxiety behavior in an estrogen-dependent manner.
Hiroi R, McDevitt RA, Morcos PA, Clark MS, Neumaier JF.
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
Neuroscience. 2011 Mar 10;176:120-31. Epub 2010 Dec 20. PMID: 21182901 [Read the Abstract]

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